石材石雕与中国古典园林

一、石与中国古典园林
中国古典造园中,御道、牌门、碑刻、亭台、楼、阁等都大量使用石材,构成了中国古典园林独特的风景和神韵。由于政治地位和经济条件的制约,中国古典园林的主要表现形式集中在皇家园林和私家园林(包乔士大夫文人和乡绅士富豪)上。
Firstly,stone application and Chinese classical gardening
Chinese classical garden always use stones in the building of the roads for emperor, memorial archways,inscripiptions,pavilions ,platforms,storied buildings and attics etc.,which all Contribute to the specific scenery and verve.Because of the restriction of the political position and economic condition,Chinese classical garden are mainly the royal garden and private garden (built by the scolar and squire’s).
古典园林中,除了用自然奇石之外,还配套建造一些诸如石桥、石塔等中国传统古典园林石雕小品等。
In classical garderning not only uses natural stone,but builds stone bridges,towers and caryvings and so on.
石塔1.石材石雕与皇家园林
石材石雕是中国皇家园林建设中的最重要的素材之一。在皇家园林建设中,由于皇家至高无上的地位,石材石雕都冠有龙、凤等皇家才能用的图案雕刻,显示了皇家园林的特色与气派。北京圆明园是中国古典园林的杰出代表,体现了中国造园技术达到中西合壁璧的最高境界。从圆明园的残檐断壁中,我们仍然依稀可见当年的石材石雕影子。中国清代皇家园林牙刷颐和园则是古典园林的又一典型。
Stone application and the royal garden
Stone is one of the most important ingredients in the construction of the Chinese royal garden.Stones are carved with dragons and phoexixes representing royal family.The Winter palace in Beijing is one of the most famous in Chinese classical gardens,with its sucessful combination of Chinese and Western style. From the broken brims and walls of the Winter palace, we can still find out the silhouette of that time.The Summer Palace built in Qing Dynasty, is another typical classical garden.
2.石材石雕与私家园林
中国的私家园林内,多用自然奇石砌成起伏有致、生机盎然的假山,表现了中国文化墨客推崇儒家思想、崇尚回归自然的精神境界;中国古代,有些富豪为了造出自家的特色,建了一些很典雅的园林景观。石材石雕在整个园林构成中并不都显得很突出,但在构建厅堂奇石景观的时候,常把碧波、黄石、红柱、粉墙都有机地合唱融合在一起,形成了妙趣天砀韵味。
Stone application and the private gardening
Rockeries are commonly used in Chinese ancient private garden, relecting Coufucianism.In the old times the rich and the powerful tend to build elegant gardens to show off their own characteristics. Stone is not always prominent in construction of the whole garden,but an organic part of a whole using the wave ,stone, pillar and wall.石塔

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